Назовите несколько профессиональных занятий, которыми занимаются только мужчины.

Напишите 5-7 вопросов по содержанию текста и задайте их своим сокурсникам.

Сформулируйте основную мысль каждого абзаца.

4.2.9. Напишите краткую аннотацию текста, используя фразы:

The average man; the battle for recognition; women’s abilities; fewer accidents; succeeded in; in addition to; guard their rights; exclude women; unreliable and irrational; real competition; would succeed brilliantly.

Раздел 4.3.

4.3.1. Прочитайте текст и определите его основную идею:

These days we hear a lot of nonsense about the 'great classless society'. The idea that the twentieth century is the age of the common man has become one of the great cliches of our time. The same old arguments are put forward in evidence. Here are some of them: monarchy as a system of government has been completely descredited. The monarchies that survive have been deprived of all political power. Inherited wealth has been savagely reduced by taxation and, in time, the great fortunes will disappear altogether. In a number of countries the victory has been complete. The people rule; the great millenium has become a political reality. But has it? Close examination doesn't bear out the claim.

It is a fallacy to suppose that all men are equal and that society will be levelled out if you provide everybody with the same educational opportunities. (It is debatable whether you can ever provide everyone with the same educational opportunities, but that is another question.) The fact is that nature dispenses brains and ability with a total disregard for the principle of equality. The old rules of the jungle, 'survival of the fittest', and 'might is right' are still with us. The spread of education has destroyed the old class system and created a new one. Rewards are based on merit. For 'aristocracy' read 'meritocracy' in other respects, society remains unaltered: the class system is rigidly maintained.

Genuine ability, animal cunning, skill, the knack of seizing opportunities, all bring material rewards. And what is the first thing people do when they become rich? They use their wealth to secure the best possible opportunities for their children, to give them 'a good start in life'. For all the lip-service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world. Private schools which offer unfair advantages over state schools are not banned because one of the principles in a democracy is that people should be free to choose how they will educate their children. In this way, the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent: an able child from a wealthy home can succeed far more rapidly than his poorer counterpart. Wealth is also used indiscriminately to further political ends. It would be almost impossible, to become the leader of a democracy financial backing. Money is as powerful a weapon as ever it was.

In societies wholly dedicated to the principle of social equality, privileged private education is forbidden. But even here people are rewarded according to their abilities. In fact, so great is the need for skilled workers that the least able may be neglected. Bright children are carefully and expensively trained to become future rulers. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated peasant.

4.3.2. Озаглавьте текст. Дайте не менее тёх вариантов заголовка.

Письменно переведите текст со словарём.

4.3.4. Напишите небольшую заметку на тему: “Is equality possible in a society?”


* Инфинитив

* Тема: Crime And Punishment

Раздел 5.1

Инфинитив (The Infinitive) – неопределенная форма глагола, которая выражает действие без указания лица, числа и наклонения, и отвечает на вопросы: Что делать? Что сделать?

Формальный признак инфинитива – частица to.

Запомните!Инфинитив употребляется без частицы to -после модальных глаголов may, can, mustи т.д. - после глаголов to make, to let; - после выражений would rather, had better; - после глаголов восприятия to see, to hear, to watch, to notice, to feelи т.д.

5.1.1 Вставьте частицу “to”, где необходимо:

1. She can … speak English.

2. We let them … go there.

3. I don’t want … see him.

4. We would rather … go home.

5. Would you like … drink?

6. They couldn’t … find their friends.

7. It’s time … go to work.

8. We were ready … go out.

9. His joke made me … laugh.

10. We had better … say it at once.

5.1.2 Замените выделенные части предложений инфинитивным оборотом:


He has a lot of books which he can read. - He has a lot of books to read.

1. Have you chosen the project of the house which you will build?

2. Could you give me a book which I can read?

3. Jack has brought us a new film which we can watch.

4. They have got a lot of work which they must finish in time.

5. She has a little time in which she will tell you everything.

6. Here is an interesting physical process which we can study.

7. Mother bought a lot of fruit which we can eat.

8. Our teacher gives us many rules which we must learn.

9. Can you give me a pen which I can write with?

10. Here are some proposals which we have to discuss.

5.1.3 Замените придаточные предложения инфинитивным оборотом:


He is so busy that he can’t answer your call. - He is too busy to answer your call.

1. She is so weak that she can’t go out.

2. They will be so busy that they won’t meet you at the station.

3. This cat is so fat that it can’t catch a mouse.

4. The game was so boring that nobody wanted to play it.

5. The story was so unbelievable that we didn’t believe him.

6. The weather is so hot that we don’t want to go out.

7. She had very little money and she couldn’t buy that dress.

8. The rule is so difficult that students don’t understand it.

9. The food was so tasteless that nobody wanted to eat it.

10. The task was so difficult that nobody could do it.

Формы инфинитива

Active Passive
Indefinite to ask to be asked
Continuous to be asking -
Perfect to have asked to have been asked
Perfect Continuous to have been asking -

Обратите внимание на значения разных форм инфинитива!

Indefinite Active I’m glad to help you. Я рад помочь вам.
Continuous I’m glad to be helping you now. Я рад, что помогаю вам сейчас.
Perfect Active I’m glad to have helped you. Я рад, что помог вам.
Perfect Continuous I’m glad to have been helping you since morning. Я рад, что помогаю вам с утра.
Indefinite Passive I’m glad to be helped. Я рад, когда мне помогают.
Perfect Passive I’m glad to have been helped. Я рад, что мне помогли.

5.1.4 Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на Active Infinitive и Passive Infinitive:

1. I’m happy to meet you.

2. He was glad to be met at the station.

3. She is sorry to tell you about it.

4. She didn’t want to be told about it.

5. The child doesn’t like to be punished.

6. To travel around the world is his only dream.

7. He wanted to be invited to this party.

8. We hope to be sent to the conference.

9. I have a great desire to spend next summer in Paris.

10. Nobody wants to be laughed at.

5.1.5 Переведите предложения на английский язык, употребляя Active Indefinite и Passive Indefinite:

1. Я хотел, чтобы меня проинформировали до их приезда.

2. Она не хочет, чтобы ее отправили в село на летние каникулы.

3. Он настаивает, чтобы ему сказали правду.

4. Мы хотим пригласить его на встречу.

5. Они рады, что им прислали приглашение на конференцию.

6. Он надеется, что ему помогут.

7. Животные не любят, когда их дразнят.

8. Она рада, что ей дают отпуск в августе.

9. Она ненавидит, когда ей мешают во время работы.

10. Дети были счастливы, что им разрешили пойти на озеро.

5.1.6 Раскройте скобки, употребляя необходимую форму инфинитива:

1. She seems (to translate) scientific articles.

2. She seems (to translate) a scientific article at the moment.

3. She seems (to translate) two scientific articles already.

4. She seems (to translate) this article since early morning.

5. Beth likes (to run) every morning before breakfast.

6. Jane is sorry (to break) the cup.

7. We were very pleased (to receive) this invitation.

8. I expect (to tell) the news by them.

9. He is glad (to speak) to her now.

10. She pretended (not to listen) to the teacher.

5.1.7 Переведите предложения на английский язык, употребляя необходимую форму инфинитива:

1. Он решил не звонить ей.

2. Кажется, сейчас идет снег.

3. Он любит рассказывать смешные истории.

4. Он доволен, что ему рассказали эту историю.

5. Я остановился, чтобы посмотреть что случилось.

6. Она не довольна, что ее остановила полиция.

7. Я надеялся быть приглашенным на их свадьбу.

8. Я счастлива, что закончила работу во время.

9. Мы разочарованы, что ищем его с утра.

10. Мне приятно разговаривать с тобой сейчас.